South Dakota Fly Fishing

Where to Fish in The Black Hills

Are you planning a visit to the Black Hills in the near future? If you are, bring your fly rod. The Black Hills offer some of the best fly fishing you can find anywhere. The opportunities are endless for the person who wants to catch fish on a fly.

If you prefer trout, the lakes and streams are loaded with them, and they like flies. Most of the trout in the streams are brown trout, although a few rainbows and brookies can be found if you look in the right places. You’ll find a mix of rainbows, browns, brookies, cutthroat trout, lake trout and splake in the local lakes. If you want to chase something else, you can find largemouth and smallmouth bass, pike, walleyes, crappie, bluegills, perch and catfish in some of the Black Hills lakes. I’ve caught every one of these species of fish in the Black Hills on a fly.

You’ll find that a 4 or 5 weight, 8 or 9 foot fly rod will work for most of the panfish and trout fishing. If you’re chasing pike, walleye or bass, you will be more comfortable with a 7 or 8 weight rod. Long leaders (9 feet or longer) are the rule for trout. Shorter ones work best for bass, walleye and pike.

The flies you’ll need vary from one month to the next, based on the local hatches. Check out the monthly hatch chart for the most prominent hatches and some of the flies you can use to match them.

Chest waders for the lakes and float tubing are a good choice. You can negotiate the local streams in a pair of hip waders without any problem. Of course, if it’s warm and you don’t mind getting wet, you can also wade in a pair of shorts and sneakers.

Black Hills Trout Management Area

elk creek south dakota
Elk Creek in the Black Hills

This area includes all waters of the Black Hills west of Interstate 90 north of Rapid City to the Wyoming border and west of Hwy.79 south of Rapid City to Hot Springs. The daily creel limit is five trout with only one 14 inches or longer. The use or possession of bait fish is prohibited except at Pactola Reservoir, Sheridan Lake and Stockade Lake. Rapid Creek from below Pactola Dam downstream to the foot bridge at Placerville Camp (about two miles) is catch and release only. Only artificial lures may be used, and the use of organic bait within 100 feet of the stream is prohibited. On Rapid Creek within Rapid City from Park Drive downstream to Jackson Boulevard all trout over 10 inches must be released. The same rules on artificial lures and organic bait apply.

Upper and Lower Yates Ponds near Cheyenne Crossing are catch and release only. Spearfish Creek from the Homestake Hydro Plant No.2 downstream to the face of the Maurice Intake Dam is catch and release for rainbow trout. Other trout may be kept. The same rules on artificial lures and organic bait apply to these waters also.
flies for the black hills of south dakota

Few anglers know that South Dakota’s Black Hills have great trout fishing in streams that flow through towering granite gorges, in scenic lakes, and in small creeks that a toddler could throw a rock across. To most visitors, the Black Hills region is best known for that presidential monument Mount Rushmore, Badlands National Park, Custer State Park, and herds of buffalo. For many anglers, it’s just a sightseeing stop on the way to more popular fishing destinations like Utah’s Green River or Montana’s Yellowstone.

That’s too bad, because the Black Hills have fish–monstrous, five- and six-pound rainbows that can make a reel sing, frisky brook trout that jump on a fly like a bobcat on a whitetail, and browns that go deep and make you work to bring them home. Whether they come from a small gorge stream or a larger catch-and-release water, the fish are worth seeing.

Rainbow and brown trout first appeared in the Black Hills area in the 1880s when Colorado gold miners came looking for their fortunes after hearing of Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer’s tales of the area’s wealth. There are no records detailing where the first fish were stocked, but many locals believe the miners randomly distributed fish in several area streams. The trout reproduced and slowly migrated to other waters.

In 1918, the first Black Hills trout hatchery was built in Rapid City, but it burned down just a year later. In 1927, the Cleghorn Springs hatchery was built just outside the city on the banks of Rapid Creek, and the hatchery still produces most of the area’s stocked trout (mostly browns and rainbows). Another hatchery near Spearfish supplies trout for the northern Black Hills.

Though the hatcheries today stock 450,000 brown, rainbow, and brook trout in Black Hills streams and lakes each year, most of Black Hills streams also hold healthy populations of wild browns, brookies, and rainbows.

South Dakota’s trout fishing is open year-round and, because of the “Banana Belt” weather that warms the Hills with 50- and 60-degree F. temperatures in December and January, it’s rarely too cold to fish. Some streams freeze over–especially in the higher elevations–and all the lakes freeze, but streams like Rapid and Spring creeks have sections of open, fishablewater all winter. Fish become sluggish and eat less in the winter, but by going deep with small nymphs and midge pupae (#18-#20), you can catch fish in winter conditions.

Water levels play a big role in the quality of Black Hills fishing. Fortunately, most Black Hills streams have enough water throughout the year to hold fish, but during summers of extremely dry years, some nearly dry up, forcing the trout to find refuge in deeper pools. The area hasn’t had a drought for a long time, though, and the fishing in the Black Hills is the best it has been in 40 years.

Most of the creeks in the Black Hills are small, but “big” waters that widen to 25 or 30 feet do exist. Rapid, Spring, Boxelder, and Spearfish creeks are considered big waters, though you can wade them with hip boots and reach their best riffles and pools without getting wet. Rapid and Spring creeks, both close to Rapid City (the largest city in the Black Hills), are the most popular streams in the area because they have large numbers of trout, good access, and offer year-round fishing.

Rapid Creek

rapid creek south dakota
Rapid Creek

Rapid Creek, one of the area’s larger streams, has good access and a great summer/fall Trico hatch.

Rapid Creek starts deep in the Black Hills and flows into Pactola Reservoir. The fishing is respectable above the reservoir, but it’s better in the catch-and-release area below. Above the reservoir, runoff from long-gone gold and other mineral mines has killed much of the insect life and reduced fish numbers. This upper stretch is beautiful, though, as it runs through one of the prettiest valleys in the Hills–100-foot-high granite walls border one side of the stream, pine-covered ridges line the other. From Silver City, a hiking trail follows Rapid Creek through the valley and provides good access for anglers.

picture of the Rapid Creek

For several miles below the Pactola Reservoir dam, catch-and-release regulations rule for both stocked and wild rainbows and browns. This section, with its football-size rocks, long, flat runs, and deep pools, provides good holding water for trout and a nice mix of nymphing and dry-fly water for anglers.

A hiking trail also follows this section of Rapid Creek and provides ample access to the water from the dam downstream for six miles. The local fly-fishing club, the Black Hills Flyfishers, has done a major stream improvement project including willow planting, bank stabilization, and boulder placement. The state stocks fewer fish in this section than in other regulated waters, but the fish are larger, averaging almost a foot long with many in the 15- to 16-inch range and a few wild browns and rainbows in the 20-inch range. These provide the possibility of catching a Black Hills trophy trout on either nymphs or drys.

Fly fishing in Rapid Creek can be tough during early spring’s high water, and I don’t advise wading when the water is high. It’s best to cast from the bank with a weighted nymph or split-shot on your leader to get your fly to the bottom. When May arrives and the water slows, wading is much safer and the dry-fly fishing begins. Rapid Creek and most of the area’s streams don’t have prolific hatches, but you can count on good midge hatches all year; Baetis and small black stones in the winter; black caddis and March Browns in the spring; yellow stones, Tricos, and tan and olive caddis in the summer; and Tricos in the fall. The fall Trico hatch is the closest thing the Black Hills has to a blizzard hatch. Trout gorge themselves on the Trico spinners as they fall from their mating clouds to the water.

Even as Rapid Creek flows out of the valley, the fishing remains good. Highway 44, also called Rimrock Highway, runs along the creek, providing good access. Though houses line much of the stream’s banks, highway pullouts and crossroads provide ample parking and access. If you do need to cross private land to get to the water, please be courteous and ask the landowner’s permission.

At Rapid City, Rapid Creek is dammed to create Canyon Lake, which also holds rainbows and browns. Below Canyon Lake, the creek continues its run through the city, through a municipal golf course and right through downtown and the county fairgrounds. In the city, the creek is open to the public, easy to access, and full of stocked and wild browns and rainbows up to 20 inches, though most are in the 10- to 15-inch range. After 5 P.M. on summer evenings, it’s common to see office workers exchanging suits for waders just a minute’s drive from downtown banks and office buildings.

For Rapid Creek and other Black Hills streams, you can’t go wrong with a fly box full of Blue-winged Olives and other Baetis imitations, little yellow and golden stoneflies, Tricos, Elk-hair Caddis, Hare’s-ear nymphs, Pheasant-tail nymphs, and other traditional patterns.

Spring Creek

If Rapid Creek is the Black Hills’ urban trout stream, Spring Creek is its country cousin. No more than 40 minutes from Rapid City, Spring Creek’s more solitary fishing is easily accessible by Route 228, also called Sheridan Lake Road, until the creek runs into Sheridan Lake. Almost anywhere you stop, the fishing is great for rainbows and browns ranging from 10 to 20 inches.

picture of the Spring Creek

Spring Creek bumps against granite walls, creating deep pools and good bolding water.

Spring Creek’s water doesn’t get as high as Rapid Creek, so it can be fished year-round. Pools and riffles every few hundred feet hold large fish at nearly every bend. The section just below the lake is designated as a trophy trout water (you can only keep one trout larger than 15 inches; any tackle can be used) and there are plenty of fish in the 15-inch range and some that push 20 inches.

Spring Creek also has a great fall Trico hatch. The morning event starts in July and continues into October, so be sure to have plenty of dun and spinner patterns with you. Otherwise, the same flies that work on Rapid Creek work here. Spring Creek also has great midge hatches in the fall, and trout eagerly take #18 and smaller Griffith’s Gnats.

Spearfish Creek

spearfish creek south dakota
Spearfish Creek

Two streams stand out in the Black Hills National Forest: Spearfish and Rapid Creeks. These two gems are two of the larger streams in the region, and although these streams typically run from 8 to 15 feet wide, they occasionally widen out to 20 to 30 feet in places.

Spearfish Creek has the potential to be a first-class fishery, with good public access except for the lower section, which is largely private. The windy little road through the steep limestone walls of Spearfish Canyon is a beautiful drive.

The canyon is chock-full of hundreds of species of birds; trails winding along several side canyons; and great photo-opportunities of cliffs, birds, animals, wildflowers, and old mining and railroad town sites.

The Black Hills National Forest surrounds the area, the forest populated with ponderosa pine, birch, and aspen; rushing streams, alpine lakes, and cascading waterfalls. Spearfish Creek is gin-clear and loaded with brown, rainbow, and brook trout.

Chasing Wild Rainbows

The stream holds one of the finest populations of wild rainbow trout in the Black Hills. The canyon stream has easy road access but despite the fact the road sees its share of traffic, it’s not too difficult to find a stretch all to yourself. The river has nice hatches of baetis, midges and little black stoneflies.

The water varies from wide, long, flat glides to churning, narrow, deep runs, so anglers have to constantly change from dry flies to nymphs to achieve success. Fishing a dropper rig is an efficient method to cover the changing characteristics. On the long flats, you’ll need to keep a low profile and be stealthy since these stretches are slow and extremely clear.

Spring Creek’s water doesn’t get as high as Rapid Creek, so it can be fished year-round. Pools and riffles every few hundred feet hold large fish at nearly every bend. The section just below the lake is designated as a trophy trout water (you can only keep one trout larger than 15 inches; any tackle can be used) and there are plenty of fish in the 15-inch range and some that push 20 inches.

On the meadow stretches, keep tight to the bank. Spearfish Creek rainbows love the fastwater and riffles, but don’t get so carried away fishing the fast stuff that you forget to test the thick streamside banks.

Spearfish Creek is located in the northern reaches of the Black Hills, south of the charming town of Spearfish. Take Route 14A south out of town and you will be able to drive along the river for almost its entire course. Little Spearfish is a nice adjunct hike in similar but smaller water in a side canyon off the main river.

The Fish

The streams of the Black Hills were first stocked with trout in the late 19th century and still are today. But many of the streams hold wild trout, especially browns. Anglers can expect to catch brown, rainbow and brook trout.


Hip waders for most streams, although on a few streams it’s handy to be wearing chest waders. Fly rods should be 6½ to 8½ feet for 3- to 5-weight. Spincasting outfits should be ultralight, no more than 6 feet with 2-pound mono.

Flies & lures

Fly fishermen do well with dry flies. All of these streams are good for fly fishing, but the great thing is that so few fly fishermen take advantage of these waters. Typical attractor patterns will work on the streams, patterns like Elk Hair Caddis, Royal Wulff, Adams, Blue Wing Olive and Stimulators, but keep the sizes down to #14#18. Big flies scare off these finicky fish. More imitative flies like Tricos, BWOs, and Baetis are necessary during hatches or tough times. Streamers and wet flies also work well, especially when the hatch is off or when the trout aren’t visible.

Hatches on Black Hills’ streams are not prolific since the waters are not terribly fertile. This means the fish have to be opportunistic and that makes for great dry-fly fishing. Black Hills streams are teeming with trout that love to feast on grasshoppers and ants, so stock up on several patterns and colors. All through the summer, especially in long stretches of water with grassy banks, hoppers should be your first choice. Typically, spin and bait fishermen use small spinners and the usual assortment of baits. Most anglers who fish these waters use spin-casting gear, and the most popular lures include plugs, crank baits and small spinners.

Spring Creek also has a great fall Trico hatch. The morning event starts in July and continues into October, so be sure to have plenty of dun and spinner patterns with you. Otherwise, the same flies that work on Rapid Creek work here. Spring Creek also has great midge hatches in the fall, and trout eagerly take #18 and smaller Griffith’s Gnats.

Spearfish Creek, which flows through Spearfish Canyon in the northern Black Hills, is a great place to visit in the fall, not only for the fishing, but for the creek’s beautiful aspen-lined banks that create a riot of yellow beneath limestone cliffs. It’s a wonderful sight to see a vein of yellow cut through the Black Hills carpet of pine.

French Creek

french creek sd
French Creek

French Creek, located in Custer State Park, is often overlooked by anglers. That’s too bad, because it’s the only place east of Yellowstone Park where a 2,000-pound buffalo might interrupt your casting. French Creek has plenty of 10- to 12-inch rainbows, too, and a #14 Elk-hair Caddis dead-drifted through the creek’s riffles and into the slower pools often drives big rainbows crazy.

Castle Creek

castle creek south dakota
Castle Creek

Castle and Boxelder creeks offer great scenery, easy access, light fishing pressure, and nice populations of stocked and wild rainbows, browns, and brookies. Fall is a fun time to fish these creeks because hoppers are active and on the water. Fish a Dave’s Hopper, Stimulator, or other hopper pattern close to the bank to get the fish’s attention. Water conditions change often on these streams, depending on rainfall–one day they can be perfect for dry-fly fishing; the next day they can be high, muddy and practically unfishable.

castle creek

I use a 71/2-foot, 5-weight rod with a floating line for all of my fishing on the larger streams, though you could get away with a 3- or 4-weight. The heavier line weight makes it easier to cast in the wind and work in the larger browns.

Small Streams

horse creek sd
Horse Creek

If you’re looking for a true Black Hills fishing challenge, try one of the area’s many “smaller” streams, which require you to sneak along the bank and cast from your knees or you may as well stay at home. Small streams like Little Spearfish, Horse, Little Boxelder, Slate, and Grace Coolidge creeks hold hearty, finicky wild brook trout that won’t even look at your fly if your approach and presentations are not perfect.

A #14 Elk-hair Caddis dead-drifted through the French Creek’s riffles often drives big rainbows crazy.
These small streams often require a long walk to reach, but they are worth the effort. Ask for directions at one of the fly shops in the Hills if you are up to testing your small-stream skills. The streams have zero crowds and great rewards.

A 3-weight rod is a blast on these smaller streams, but a heavier outfit can load much quicker in tight places where you don’t have much room to cast, and help rip flies from overhanging brush. I find terrestrial patterns–beetles, ants, and hoppers–to be the most effective on these small-stream brookies.

Best Local Flies to Use

Baetis Cripple


  • Hook: Daiichi 1130 Sizes 16-22
  • Tail: Amber Sparkle Yarn or Darlon
  • Abdomen: Brown Olive D-Rib
  • Thorax: Nature’s Spirit Rusty Olive Emerger Dub
  • Wing: Nature’s Spirit Yearling Elk Dyed Light Dun
  • Hackle: Dun Hackle

Ice Dub Emerger


  • Hook: Daiichi 1130 Sizes 16-22
  • Tail: Partridge Fibers
  • Rib: Small Black Ultra Wire
  • Abdomen: Olive Ultra Thread
  • Loop Wing: UV Grey Ice Dub
  • Thorax: Nature’s Spirit Olive Grey Emerger Dub
  • Legs: Partridge Fibers



  • Hook: Daiichi 1120 Sizes 10-16
  • Weight: Adhesive Lead Tape
  • Abdomen/Thorax: Chartreuse Thread
  • Rib: Medium Olive D-Rib
  • Gills: Light Tan Ostrich Herl
  • Legs: Golden Pheasant Tail Fibers
  • Head: Tying thread tinted with permanent marker

Hatch Chart for the Black Hills



Hatch Times

Dry Fly

(color & size of adult)


(color & size of nymph)

Midge(chironomidae)Year round (best during spring and warm winter days)Adult CDC, Griffith’s gnat Olive, black, tan, cream, and grey in sizes 18-26Brassie, larva worm in black, red, tan, brown, and olive in sizes 16-24
BWO (baetis)February-MayComparaduns, para.BWO Adams. Olive or grey in sizes 14-18PT or Hares ear as a soft hackle or bead head in sizes 14-18
Little Black StoneflyJanuary thru AprilAny adult stonefly pattern in black or dark olive in sizes 14-18Nymphs should be tyed in black or peacock in sizes 14-18
Black CaddisLate March thru JuneBlack or dark olive hair wing or CDC caddis pattern in
sizes 14-18
Tan to light pink larva and dark olive to brown  pupa in
sizes 14-16
March Brown (Rhithrogena)April thru MayAny brown or cream mayfly emergers or adult patterns in
sizes 12-16
Pheasant Tail, brown Hares Ear and brown soft hackles in sizes 12-18
Damsel and Dragon FliesApril thru AugustBlue or green spent adult patterns in sizes 8-12Whitlocks Damsel nymph pattern in olive or brown and Wooly Buggers in sizes 8-12
Yellow Stonefly (Isoperla)Early May thru JulyYellow to light brown body with an orange tip on the abdomen the wings are light tan to yellow in sizes 14-18Any Stonefly pattern in light yellow to light brown in
sizes 8-14
Trico (Tricorythodes)Mid. July thru Septembercut wing duns, poly spinners male in black the female is chartreuse and black both sexes have white wings
in sizes 18-24
Pheasant Tails or Hares Ears light to dark brown in
sizes 18-22
Fall BWO (Baetis/Acentrella)July thru early AugustColors the same as the Spring Baetis and Acentrella has a chartreuse abdomen
sizes 18-22
Same as Spring BWO in sizes 16-20
Tan & Olive CaddisMay thru Mid. September
(Usually evenings)
Elk hair, CDC, Cut wing light tan to dark olive or brown in sizes 14-18Pale to dark olive larva and grey to olive pupa in
sizes 14-18
Speckle Winged Mayfly
May thru June then mid August thru SeptemberAdams, Brooks sprout emerger.  Grey body with speckled wings found in lakes or slower moving water in the streams in sizes 14-18Any nymph that is brown to olive on top and grey to olive on the bottom
in sizes 14-18

Scuds and Shrimp

  • Year round
  • Scuds have an olive or tan body with an orange egg sac, the shrimp are transparent to white or light tan in color in sizes 12-18


  • March to late October
  • Ants and beetles most of the year. 
  • Hoppers are usually fishes June thru October
  • Schroders para. hopper, Ranies Grand hopper,Daves, Joes, and the Madam X yellow, green and tan.
  • Ant patterns in sizes 12-22, beetles in sizes 12-18 and hoppers are found in size 16 in June and grow to size 6 by October

Lake Fishing

Just like the streams, Black Hills lakes can be categorized into large and small. All of the lakes are manmade and either 40 acres and smaller or 100 acres and larger, but not all of them hold trout. At one time they did, but over the past ten years or so, two lakes–Sheridan Lake and Pactola Reservoir–have been polluted with illegally-stocked northern pike, and the trout don’t last long after a stocking. Several other lakes still offer excellent trout fishing and are great for float-tubing.

You can fish from shore but the best way to fish most lakes would be from a float tube or pontoon boat such as the Hobie Float Cat 75. Damsel and Dragon fly imitations and streamers are a good bet when fishing the lakes.

Great hatches from April through September – some of the insects hatches include: Baetis, Caddis and Little Yellow Stone Flies in the spring and early summer. There is good Hopper action in late summer as well as Tricos and another Baetis hatch in the Fall. Midges hatch year round with some of the best action happening on the warm mid-winter days.

Canyon Lake

Canyon Lake, off Jackson Boulevard, is located inside the Rapid City limits. Though small, Canyon holds huge trout–stocked rainbows and browns up to 30 inches–and because of its proximity to the Cleghorn Springs Fish Hatchery, the state dumps a few brood stock in the lake each year. Pictures of these 30-inch, 12-pound monsters decorate the wall in Rapid City’s Dakota Angler and Outfitter fly shop. A #12 Woolly Bugger stripped slowly through the lake’s currents often gets the trout’s attention. A parking lot and boat ramp at the west end of the lake offer easy and convenient access to the water.

Pactola Reservoir

At 860 acres, Pactola Reservoir is the largest lake in the Black Hills. Pactola is cold and deep, up to 158 feet. The lake is backed up behind Pactola Dam on Rapid Creek. It is used for flood control and also to regulate water in Rapid Creek, which flows through Rapid City. The creek is used for some of Rapid City’s water supply and for irrigation.
The Pactola Visitor Center, just south of the Dam on Hwy. 385, is open from the Memorial Day through the Labor Day weekends. Forest Service employees are there during the day to answer questions and provide materials on the Black Hills National Forest.

There are two marina’s and boat ramps, two picnic grounds and two camp grounds at Pactola. Wheelchair access for fishing is available just north of the Dam at Veteran’s Point.


Sheridan Lake

Sheridan Lake (map, 25kb) is located 20 miles southwest of Rapid City on Spring Creek. This 385 acre reservoir receives heavy use, especially during the summer. There are lots of water skiers. Fish available include largemouth bass, yellow perch, sunfish, northern pike and a few rainbow trout. A popular lake for ice fishing. Because of the population of northern pike, the Game, Fish and Parks department discontinued stocking rainbow trout this year (1997). There are two campgrounds, two picnic areas and a marina.


Sylvan Lake

Sylvan Lake is special not only for its fishing for rainbows and browns, but for its location. The lake sits at the foot of Harney Peak, the highest peak between the Rocky Mountains and the Pyrenees Mountains in Europe. The lake is small, but was built among nubs of granite that sprout from the water like the spikes on a pair of baseball cleats. Sylvan sits at the top of Needle Highway, one of the most exhilarating and beautiful car rides in the Black Hills. A parking lot at the lake makes for easy access.

Deerfield Lake

Deerfield Lake may be the best of the Black Hills’ bigger lakes. Located 14 miles west of Hill City, this long, skinny lake is best fished along its banks, where large groups of rainbows and browns congregate.

Deerfield Lake (map, 35kb) is located in the central part of the Black Hills at 5900 feet above sea level. It’s about 45 miles southwest of Rapid City and 17 miles northwest of Hill City. The lake was rehabilitated in 1982. It is stocked annually with rainbow trout. Other species available are brook trout and splake. The state record brook trout weighing 8 pounds and 5 ounces was caught here in 1995. It broke the old record of 7 pounds and 10 ounces, also caught in Deerfield, set in 1990.

The state record splake, 10 pounds and 5 ounces, was caught here in 1994.

There are three campgrounds, two picnic areas and two boat ramps on the lake.

If you plan to fish any of the Black Hills lakes, cast a bead-head nymph, Woolly Bugger, or Black-nosed Dace streamer to within a few feet of the bank and retrieve it slowly. Just as the sun sets, tie on a #16 Zug Bug and speed up the retrieval a bit. Fish seem to prefer the smaller fly and the flash of the peacock sword tail. I usually fish with floating lines on the lakes, but during the middle of summer, a sinking line helps me get the fly to the trout holding deep in the cooler water.

Before heading out to any of the bigger lakes in the Hills, check the weather report. The wind can howl in the Hills and make maneuvering a float tube next to impossible.

Related Articles & Resources

Big Wild Trout!
It isn’t often that you can catch big trout that are wild or wild trout that are big — but at these Black Hills locations, you can.

Castle Creek
More information on fishing Castle Creek

Spearfish Creek
How to fish Spearfish Creek

Spring Creek
More information about Spring Creek

Dakota Angler and Outfitter
513 7th St. Rapid City, SD 57701, 605-341-2450

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